اللغات المخترعة (1) Constructed Languages – لغة إسبرانتو – Esperanto


In a previous episode of Ripples, we discussed the design and structure of Natural Languages, and talked a little how with today’s scientific, engineering and design abilities, we can come up with more efficient languages. We’ll talk today about some experiments that attempted to introduce alternative systems that can add something to this complicated field. or what is called: Constructed Languages Some other common names for them are: Planned Language Invented Languages Artificial Languages Auxiliary Languages Those labels are all used, as opposed to Natural languages, which developed “naturally”, spontaneously, maybe randomly and surely not in a planned manner. There are many reasons and purposes for developing such languages, including the dream of having one universal language, experimenting with its effects on thought & psychology of speakers, to be the language of imaginary characters, and many others. As mentioned in the episode of Natural Languages, classification in the field of Languages isn’t the easiest thing in the world, and is something hard to be agreed on. Now that we said that, let’s pick one way of classifying Constructed Languages, and use it to talk about them: There are 2 main groups, each of which has its own sub-groups: the 1st is: a priori Languages: in which, the vocabulary is NOT based on already-existing Natural languages. and it contains the following sub-groups: I- Oligosynthetic languages: Oligo means “few”, and it is used here because those languages contain only a few 100s of morphemes. Where a morpheme is a minimal meaningful language unit; it cannot be divided into smaller meaningful units The vocabulary in these languages are formed by combining (several) morphemes (with each other). II. Taxonomic languages: They form their words using a taxonomic hierarchy, with each morpheme of a word helping specify its position in a semantic hierarchy of some kind; this will be clearer when we talk about the language: Ro as an example of taxonomic Languages III. Pasigraphies: Purely written languages without a spoken form IV. Logical languages: Whose objective is to eliminate ambiguity! Lojban is one great example of those Languages. which we’ll talk about in a later episode. The 2nd Main Group is:
A posteriori languages: These are the constructed Languages that are based on existing natural languages. Let’s not go into details and delve right into some concrete examples of Constructed Languages. By far, the most famous example of a Constructed Language is Esperanto Esperanto was created by a doctor named Zamenhof at 1887 Who believed it could play the role of a neutral communication tool between people of different ethnic and linguistic backgrounds as a way of promoting the peaceful coexistence of different people and cultures, breaking down barriers between people and helping everyone see each other as neighbors. When Zamenhof introduced the language, he used the name Dr. Esperanto (which means ‘the doctor who hopes’). And that’s how the name came to be. Esperanto is so famous now that an entire culture is formed around it, You can find: music, literature and plays, in Esperanto . “Esperantists” as they call themselves hold several kinds of meetings from real-life international conventions and parties, to all kinds of online meetings. the symbol of Esperanto is a green star, which is a part of the Esperanto flag. The color green is a sign of hope, and the five points of the star symbolize the five continents. It’s hard to give a precise estimate to the number of Esperanto speakers, Esperantists tend to give a number close to 2 million Esperanto speakers, While skeptics give a smaller number. However, it’s agreed upon that this figure is at least in the hundreds of thousands By default, The word-order is : subject–verb–object. Adjectives are usually, but not necessarily, placed before the noun The alphabet follows the one-sound-one-letter principle Esperanto has 28 lettres, 5 vowels: a e i o u and 23 consonants : the following letters are pronounced in Esperanto the same way they are in English: b d f k l m n p t v & z The “r” is not exactly like the English one, but rather closer to a rolled Spanish or Italian r, like this: r(rrr) Notice the absence of the letters: qwxy as for letters that might (or might not) have diacritics, they go like this: (on screen) if you noticed that I didn’t pronounce some of them, it’s because I couldn’t. Words are derived by stringing together prefixes, roots, and suffixes Prefixes and suffixes are (respectively) what can be added in front of and at the end of the root to modify its meaning. all common nouns end in -o, adjectives in -a, and similarly, different parts of speech are marked by their own suffixes. Verbs are not marked for person or number. So, for example if you wanna say: I SING you say: mi kantas vi kantas”you sing” ili kantas”they sing”. Esperanto’s rules are fixed and it doesn’t have the irregularities we encounter in Natural Languages. which makes it easy to learn, and it seems that there are studies showing that learning Epseranto expedites the acquisition of the other natural language. Which is an argument used by many Esperantists to convince people to learn and teach their children Esperanto even if they won’t use it in their daily lives ( and practical activities). The Vocabulary derives primarily from the Romance languages, and so, it is generally easier to learn by Europeans. And that made some people feel that the language has a bias towards Europeans, which doesn’t go well with its main purpose of bringing people together by being a NEUTRAL language which doesn’t favor a linguistic background over another And with this, our chat about Esperanto ends: Let us know what you think of it in the comment section below (on Screen) Did this episode encourage you to learn a Constructed Language? If yes, don’t rush into Esperanto just yet, Wait till you hear about Lojban in the next episode, and then make your decision. Subscribe to make sure you get the new episodes as they are out, And see you in the next one. PEACE

20 thoughts on “اللغات المخترعة (1) Constructed Languages – لغة إسبرانتو – Esperanto

  1. ETV Esperanto-Televido ŝatus aldoni tiun interesan filmon al sia senĉesa programo!
    http://esperantotv.net/
    Ĉu vi povas aldoni subtekstojn en Esperanto?

  2. حلقة رائعة وأتطلع لتعلم الاسبرانتو. فكرة لغة سهلة توحد العالم جيدة و يجب ان تدرس في أقرب الآجال.

  3. to be honest i don't find it interesting to learn esperanto,but why not upgrade our naturel languages isn't easier and more comprehensive

  4. الفكرة جيدة ، وشخصيا حبيت اللغة ونفسي اتعلمها ..
    لكن تساؤلي حول الفكرة الاخيرة .. كيف نحاول تقريب البشر بلغة متحيزة ؟ هذا هو مالم يعجبني فيها ..

  5. شكرا جزيلا على الشرح الممتاز والمعلومات الممتعة. فعلا استفدت جدا من الفيديو.

  6. Kiel vi ne povis elparoli literon „ŭ”? 😀 Havas ĝi la saman signifon, kiel la angla „w”, kaj ŝajne ĝin vi ĉiam elparolas bone kaj senprobleme, ĉu ne? 🙂

    How come aren't you able to pronounce the letter “ŭ”? 😀 It has the same meaning as english “w” and apparently this letter you always pronounce well and without any troubles, don't you? 🙂

  7. Bonvenon je la Esperanto komunumo. Jes, vere estas tre interesa afero.  Tamen eĉ  Esperanto estanta la plej facila lingvo lernebla, oni devas klopodi lerni…

  8. الفكرة حلوة بس مو كل أصولها أوروبية فيه نسبة بسيطة من المفردات صينية🇨🇳و ڤيتنامية🇻🇳

  9. تعليق على من اخترع اللغة هو يهودي الديانه صهيوني الانتماء وهو من اللذين دعو مايسمى عودة اليهود الى ارضهم حسب اعتقادهم او ما يريدو ان يعتقدوة وهي فلسطين . وفي المقطع مذكور انه من دعاه السلام وهدفه ان يحقق التعايش والسلام في العالم ههههه

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