FD VLE 3: Rebuilding Attachments with Military Children Utilizing Play Therapy

Coral Owen: Good Morning and welcome. My name is Coral Owen and I am the professional
development coordinator for the Military Families Learning Network. And it’s my sincere pleasure to welcome you
to the third session of the 2016 virtual learning event hosted by the Family Development concentration
area of the MFLN. Today’s session is entitled “Rebuilding Attachments
with Military Children Utilizing play Therapy.” Today we’ll be hearing from Mr. James Corbin. Webinar resources including the presentation
slides can be found at the learn.extension.org link that you see on the slide as well as
in the chat pod. So just scroll down to the bottom of that
page and they will be located under the event materials section. The military Families Learning NEtwork is
part of a DoD USDA partnership for military families. Connecting military family service providers
and cooperative extension professionals to research and to each other through engaging
online learning opportunities. You can explore more about our communities
and resources and www.extension.org/militaryfamilies. I’d also like to let you know that you can
join our MFLN webinar email list to receive our monthly update by clicking on the lower
right of this slide. Finally the MFLN is active on Facebook and
Twitter and we host an archive of our professional development sessions on YouTube. So please be sure to check these out. At this time I’d like to turn things over
to Ms. Bari Sobelson who is the social media specialist for the Family Development team. Thanks Bari. Bari Sobelson: Thank you Coral. Good morning everybody. As she mentioned my name is Bari Sobelson
with the MFLN Family Development team and we are so excited to have all of you here
today. Welcome to session three of our VLE on strengthening
the family core. Just like the last two VLEs there will be
an opportunity to receive NASW GAMFT and EITP credits for this webinar and all of the other
webinars in this virtual learning event. There will be more information about this
at the end of the webinar. Additional resources for today’s webinar can
be found on the learn event page and one of the family development team members will be
putting that link to the page in the chat pod and the bottom left of your screen. If you would like the slides from this presentation
you can find them on the learn event page as Coral mentioned. This is session three of our 2016 virtual
learning event. The theme of this VLE is strengthening the
family core. If you were unable to attend sessions one
on advocacy and/or two on routines based intervention, I highly recommend that you follow the links
being provided in the chat pod at this time so you can view those recordings. Our last session for this event will be next
Thursday Sept. the 22nd same time and place. We will be discussing the impact of moral
injury on military families. If you would like to learn more information
on this session follow the link that Christina is providing in the chat pod currently. Today it is my pleasure to introduce all of
you to Jame Corbin. James has served as a full time clinical faculty
and an instructor in the graduate school of social work at Temple University. In the fall of 2014 he was appointed as the
MSW program assistant director. Additionally he is the clinical director and
lead developer of The Family Center at Temple University in Harrisburg. He is a volunteer therapist for Give An Hour
and is an active member of PA Cares and the Harrisburg regional planning team for Operation
Military Kids. His recent work includes the development of
the College of Public Health and School of Social Work online postgraduate certificate
in military counseling. If you would like more information on James
and all of his amazing work, please check out the link provided in the chat pod at this
time. Right before we officially get started we
would like to gather a little bit of information from all of you. You will notice a grey box on your screen. If you could please click on the circle that
applies to your affiliation you may need to scroll down a bit just to see all of the options
on your screen and we’ll give you just a couple of minutes to complete that. Ok, thank you so much. And at this time I’m gonna pass it over to
James. James Corbin: Good morning everyone. Thanks Bari for the introduction and welcome
everyone. Very excited to talk with you this morning
about attachment, play therapy, and the military child. I would like this webinar to be interactive
and so I encourage you as some of you have already, to use the chat feature to ask any
questions or to make any comments and I think that will make for the best experience here. We are gonna go over a lot of information
some of the information that is contained in the slides that hopefully you had a chance
to download we may not get into because it is a lot of information. But it’s there for your information and as
a resource. We want to spend a majority of the time talking
about play therapy and that will be the bulk of our discussion. But also I’m going to provide some background
information regarding attachment and trauma and a little bit of the neuroscience behind
those two phenomenon. But before we get started I wonder if we could
talk a little bit. And I wanted to ask you about why do you think
this topic of rebuilding attachments and military families is so important? What are your thoughts? I’m interested to hear from our audience. Why do you think this topic is so important? I see a couple folks that are typing here
in the chat. And it looks like from the poll a majority
of our audience members are from various agencies in health and human service, from around the
country. I’m tuning in from Pennsylvania – some folks
from the Navy, from the Army. Okay it looks like a number of people are
tuning in. So I’m interested hearing from you about this
topic and about your work in the area as well. Cheryl who’s tuning in from Rocky Mount, NC
– welcome. Hearing from Dana Jones. Absolutely Dana – part and parcel of military
life are these long separations that come with deployment, that come with specialized
training that lasts weeks, sometimes months depending on the MOS or job of the service
member. So these interruptions have a great impact
on our families, particularly as you point out, our youngest children – especially in
that very earliest part of life. So what we’re gonna be talking about is what
makes military families unique in that sense. The sacrifices that the family makes – what
makes them unique from perhaps other families, civilian families. But also some of the resilience factors and
ways that we all as human service providers can mitigate some of those. Keep the chats coming and I’d like to get
to some of the questions that you all are asking in the chat and make comment on some
of your information. Thank you and keep it coming. First of all, some of the things that make
a military family unique – there’s a great deal of material in the literature about what
makes a military family a little different, what are some of the characteristics that
makes the family a little bit different from a civilian family. One particular writer – and this is in a handbook
on counseling military families specifically designed for mental health professionals – describes
the family fortress. The family kind of revolves around the service
member’s mission and contributes to the mission in certain ways – to minimize distractions,
especially to a deployed family member. The three characteristics that Hall points
out are the characteristics of secrecy (revolving around the mission and what their loved one
might be doing in terms of their job), stoicism (keeping a stiff upper lip and minimizing
distractions, keeping feelings of fear and so forth to themself, this includes partners,
spouses, and children) as well as denial. And when we talk about denial it’s been talked
about a lot in the literature about family members of service members sort of have to
live in denial about the reality that their loved one is going to be going into harm’s
way. And into life and death situations and there’s
a certain degree of denial that the family has to live under to kind of face that stark
reality every day and every minute of the day would not be healthy and so it’s really
in some way a kind of healthy form of denial that the family needs to live under. However, these characteristics can make it
very difficult for us as human service providers, counselors, therapists, and others who are
providing care to the family it can make military families particularly challenging. I’ve found that in my work as well and for
those of you who have had the opportunity to work with military families you may be
able to relate to that as well. Trauma kind of falls into two different areas. Type one is those kinds of traumas that are
experienced as a discrete event or subsequent to a discrete incident. We see this in natural disasters. This doesn’t just apply to military families
but applies to a wide variety of trauma. And type two which is probably the type of
trauma that military family members including children experience more often occurs in small
increments on more than one occasion. The research tells us that military families
are at higher risk to experience domestic violence, substance abuse, but also the trauma
of relocation and multiple deployments. So children and family members may experience
a secondary or vicarious trauma as well through the trauma experience by their loved one who
is a service member. So it’s really again a centering concept of
any kind of work with the military family is this necessity to have some knowledge about
trauma informed care and the types of trauma that one can experience. The good news – especially nowadays and the
military at one point probably, say 20 years ago or more perhaps was notoriously silent
on this issue as far as family members. There weren’t a whole lot of programs that
were available to families perhaps at one time. And the good news is that has changed quite
a bit. There are some built in supports, ready made
supports, for families within the military structure. So that’s really exciting news. One of theses forms that this support takes
that many of you may be familiar with are the FRGs or the Family Readiness Groups. These are groups that form within units, they
are – depending on the command – they can be formal structures or less formal structures,
but are usually run by the spouses and partners and families of the service member. They tend to meet on a regular basis, maybe
monthly. Again it depends on the culture of the FRG
which depends on the command and culture of the unit. These are groups that help families. For instance when one of the members of the
unit has to move. I had an experience with one of my first clients
in a place called the Military Family Center, which I may talk about in a little bit – a
counseling center that we developed to work specifically to work with military families
and children in the Harrisburg area, here in Pennsylvania. But for one of my first clients, one of the
main things that faced the family during their father’s deployment was the unexpected move
that Mom and her two children – I met with the 5 year old daughter and there was a younger
son who was not quite 3. She had to move unexpectedly and she was,
for all intents and purposes, was a single mother and had some family support in the
area, but it was her FRG group and the members of her FRG group that was really instrumental
in helping her literally kind of foot the load of the move. They showed up on moving day, helped her get
boxes packed and everything. So the FRGs are really terrific and can be
really helpful in those groups. Here in Pennsylvania and in California and
Texas as well are heavily National Guard states and Pennsylvania I think is the 3rd largest
National Guard contingent in the country. One of the services within the National Guard
is called the Child and Family Services. These are groups that provide a number of
recreational, therapeutic related activities to the National Guard and their families. They also operate as a kind of case management
service of sorts to our service members and their families when they are in need. A number of my close colleagues who work for
CHild and Family Services they make referrals from anything from individual or family counseling
on the therapeutic end to – Iremember one of my colleagues saying she got a panicked
call from a spouse who was hosting Thanksgiving dinner and had never cooked a turkey before. SO those CHild and Family SErvices really
are outstanding and quite versatile and perform a number of different duties for our service
members and their families. The last one is sort of a conglomerate of
the civilian and military based services sort of as a whole and that’s called the Family
Readiness System. This is a network of agencies, services, programs
of individuals who collaborate to form a sort of safety net for our service members and
their families. SOme are community based, they work in cooperation
with some of the other services that I mentioned. Isee in the chat that the Navy has a child
and family services as well it’s called Fleet and Family Support Center. THat’s terrific to learn Amanda. We cannot offer too much support for these
families and the children so thanks Amanda. So there are some built in supports that really
aim to help our families and are really doing terrific work. Any other thoughts or questions before we
get into a little bit of the neurobiology of attachment? I want to talk a little bit about the brain
and some of the main structures and connections that really relate to attachment and then
we’ll get into the meat of the matter. Any other questions or comments from our participants? I see a number of you are posting some resources
that you’re familiar with and links to our fellow participants. Thank you so much that’s terrific. I see Christina had posted a book on resources
so keep that kind of thing coming. We like to see that so that’s terrific. So we’ll get into the next portion of this
morning session and talk a little bit about the neurobiology of attachment. This picture is actually my oldest son who
is latched onto my hat – I thought it was an appropriate slide for talking about attachment
– He is literally attached to me there. One of the things that psychology and now
the neurobiology supports is this really important role that early childhood attachments play
in the developing child. NOt just in terms of the relationship that
is formed and the bond that is formed, that is something we’ve known instinctually and
throughout our existence but we know that they make important neurobiological connections
during that time that also effects their ability to regulate affect and mood. That is borrowed from their caregivers – a
child’s ability to soothe themself is not something that they are altogether born with
it’s something that they learn through their interaction with their caregiver. SO when their caregiver can help them to regulate
when they are upset, when they are experiencing distress that infants do when they are hungry
or when they’re tired or when they’re scared, or other kinds of negative experiences and
they have a reassuring caregiver the young child learns to begin to soothe themself. The self soothing phenomenon is so important
in terms of affect regulation. One of my favorite child psychologists, Donald
Winnicott, has pointed out to us that the idea of attachment – and that’s our other
son, our youngest son being attached to his mom. He was literally trying to eat Mom there – he
described attachment as such an important phenomenon, he actually said, “There’s no
such thing as just the baby. It is this baby-mother pair or this baby-caregiver
pair. They kind of operate as a dyad. They don’t operate in isolation from one another. We know through neuroscience research tells
us that the caregiver changes the infant brain but also the infant brain changes the caregivers
brain. There is a neurobiological-biological change
that takes place in both the infant and the caregiver during this attachment experience
– during these bonding experiences. So again, when there are interruptions in
these attachments, and not just with military families but when there are interruptions
due to neglect or abuse or long periods of time away from one another, there can be things
that are missed. The good news is that those missed experiences
can be mitigated by corrective attachment experiences so when those reconnections are
made, that can mitigate any kind of damage, so to speak that’s done. Briefly, what we’ve learned from attachment
early on is from the animal research. We noticed the differences in certain animals
and the way they behave – not only the way the behave with their mates, but how they
raise young. In some cases certain animals have both male
and females involved in the child rearing responsibilities. I’ll give you a really quick example in the
interest of time because we want to get to the play therapy portion, but just one quick
example. There are two types of animals called a vole. There’s a montane vole and the plantain vole. THese two different voles – although they’re
genetically the same species, they found that they do vary in different areas. Ones is associated with mountains regions
and one is associated with more plains regions. But these voles, for all intents and purposes
are the same species of animal, but they noticed very stark differences in their child rearing
practices. In the montane vole the male is not monogamous,
has multiple partners, is not involved in the child rearing process. In the plantain vole the male is very much
involved in the child rearing, stays with the family, is monogamous, they form mates
for life. And when they looked a little bit closer at
these two voles, what they noticed were two very different levels of certain neurochemicals. The one in particular is a neurochemical by
the name of vasopressin is present in human beings and also in most mammals. And what we’ve kind of figured out is the
vasopressin is kind of the attachment neurochemical. We see rises in vasopressin during certain
periods of human adult life like during bonding with children, during breastfeeding, also
during love making. This is a neurochemical that kind of spikes
in quantity. So again what we’ve learned from animal research
and sort of extrapolated to understanding the human attachment and the importance of
that is really kind of neat. So I did talk about this already. Attachment forms sort of the basis of a child’s
relationship model but it also is very important in this idea of self-soothing. Again during times of stress we all, as adults,
have varying abilities to self soothe or regulate our anxiousness, our fears. And these are things that are learned at a
very early age. Also to kind of self-organize around strong
emotion regulate affect, mood regulation – these are all important kind of psychological phenomenon
that are learned during that attachment relationship. And we know that difficulties during this
period can cause some forms of psychopathology – again mood disturbance, relationship patterns
can be affected by this, by these early attachment experiences. I’m gonna pause there for a second because
I’m going to talk a little bit about the gross anatomy of the brain and then we’re going
to get into the meat of the matter in terms of play therapy and some of its forms and
its application with military children. But before we do that are there any questions? I see Robyn has written back to the FRGs “It’s
important to remember that in some ways it serves as a function of the extended family.” So true Robyn and this community and family
that is formed by the FRGs is really so key for children, for spouses and partners, during
deployment they really do become and extended family. For better or worse. I’ve heard one student that I had at Temple
who was a military spouse was mixed. She really liked the FRGs but she said sometimes
they became sort of a gossip circle to find out who’s doing what and she sort of took
the good with the bad with the FRG she still attended them, but that was one aspect of
the FRG, like any family or close community they know each others’ business. Any other thoughts on the FRGs or the support
systems or some of the slides on attachment? Ok. Then let’s get into a little bit on the gross
anatomy of the brain. And we’ll spend about 15 minutes on this and
then I want to spend a good half hour to 40 minutes on the meat of the matter here. So let’s talk about the gross anatomy of the
brain. We’re gonna talk about the two hemispheres,
the effect of trauma on the brain. SOme of the main structures that are affected
not just by attachment disruptions but also certain types of trauma and some of the basic
functions of the brain just by way of providing a backdrop for this phenomenon of attachment. So first of all the brain is divided by a
central fissure which is the dividing line between the hemispheres into right and left
hemispheres. The left hemisphere – and this is a little
bit oversimplified because the brain is a highly integrated organ, but we know from
neuro research that the left hemisphere is involved in sort of the linear, logical processes
of language, logical reasoning, the conscious, sequential learning, mathematical learning,
story-telling, and verbal processes. We know that this is a little bit more pronounced
in females than males. THe left hemisphere is a little larger in
females than in males. The right hemisphere is involved in processes
of the unconscious – emotion, sort of the emotional part of our brain, spatial awareness,
abstract ideas, and really concerned with the holistic process and the Gestalt. This part of the brain is actually the first
part of the brain that matures and it tends to be larger than the left hemisphere and
it actually induces the growth and development of the other hemispheres. So this is the part of the brain that is really
at work in the earliest part of an infant’s life. We know that this is dominant and tends to
be larger in males than in females. We also know between hemispheres that when
there is damage done to one part of the brain if there is damage in a similar part of the
brain in males and females it can actually impact functioning differently. The brains in males and females have enough
difference that damage to the same part can actually affect their brains in very different
ways. The next thing I’d like to talk about, and
this is a really important part of our brain – one of the most important if not the most
important connective tissue of the brain. It’s called the corpus callosum. This is the main connective tissue between
the right and left hemispheres of the brain. This is this dense formation of nuclei and
connection between the right and left hemispheres. Corpus Callosum actually means ‘big bundle.’ I love the graphic here, I think that’s very
descriptive. The main wiring and connective tissue between
our brains. The corpus callosum has been sometimes called
the brain’s superhighway so there’s information flowing constantly across the hemispheres. So again, think of our brain as a really highly
integrated chemical and electrical organ that, again there are other connections, but this
is the main connective tissue between the hemispheres. It allows our brains and those various parts
– if you think of the right hemisphere – this is a little overly simplified – but if you
think of the right hemisphere as part of the feeling part of our brain and the left hemisphere
part of our brain being sort of the problem solving part of our brain – you know this
corpus callosum allows these two parts to communicate and form sort of an integrated
action or thoughts, feeling. It’s really, really important that these parts
of our brain are communicating with one another. The other thing that’s kind of exciting and
this is relatively new in terms of our understanding of the brain. We used to think that at one time when brain
cells died for various reasons, b/c of damage to the brain, b/c of the natural process of
aging and so forth that we had all the brain cells that we were going to have at a certain
age and that we just continue to lose them over a period of time. That’s not true. That was an understanding that we had for
quite some time but it’s actually not true. We form new brain cells all the time. In fact, perhaps – I’m surmising – that we
have formed new brain cells since we’ve started this webinar b/c one of the things called
neurogenesis says one of the ways in which we develop new brain cells is through new
learning. Whenever we learn something new, we form a
new temporary memory that if we learn it over and over, and if we read more about it, things
like that it can become a more permanent part of our memory and we are actually forming
new brain cells. Again that’s relatively new neuroscience knowledge,
probably in the last 15 years or so that we actually do form new brain cells. And so one of the exciting parts of that – and
one of the messages I hope to get out there today is – that even when there is damage
done to the brain and to our attachment relationships the good news is that through repetition,
through consistency, through therapeutic means – you know counseling and we’re gonna talk
about play therapy – through those kinds of actions we can re-form – to an extent – and
actually sort of mitigate damage and form those connections. So that’s a hopeful message and something
that we’ve learned through the neuroscience research. Dana asks a great question. I want to stop there for just a second and
it’s not off topic at all. Dana asks “Does this apply to CTE?” That’s a great question. And it’s a little bit unknown. CTE if often associated with an impact injury
to the brain. We’re hearing a lot about CTEs now that it’s
football season. We’re hearing a lot about our NFL players,
past and present who have experienced CTEs these are largely impact injuries to the brain. That’s a little bit different and of course
our service members experiencing these CTEs. WE don’t know as much about that. The University of Pittsburgh here in Pennsylvania
has been really – at least in the region – has been one of the leaders at looking at CTE
and other types of impact related brain injuries and their treatment. But I think the jury’s still out on that. Thanks Kacy. I appreciate that. Check the chat you guys. Our participants and mediators are putting
out a lot of really good information about CTE. Dana we may get to that a little bit later. That’s an excellent question. I think the jury’s still out a little bit
on that. I want to talk a little bit about a couple
other structures before we get into talking about play therapy and its benefits. The one structure that is highly involved
in the formation of memory and kind of integrates memory and emotion is the amygdala. One of the best presentations I’d ever been
part of was put on by a psychiatric nurse and she talked about the gross anatomy of
the brain and she was talking about the various structures. And when she came to this amygdala – which
I remember she had suggested the way to remember how to spell it is just Amy G Dala – but she
also said that one of the things to think about in terms of its functionality is to
think of the amygdala as kind of the brain’s emotional secretary and it puts post-it notes
on memory. In other words, when we have any kind of memory
it kind of gives the emotional content. So Is this something to worry about or is
this something not to worry about? Do I need to do something immediately about
what I’m experiencing or can I think more on this and react to it later? It really kind of filters current experiences
or present experiences and attaches sor to femotional significance to this. So it really is in many ways – along with
the right hemisphere of our brain – it really is the emotional centerpiece of our brain. So it’s something that if you do any reading
in research in this regard you’re gonna hear a lot about the amygdala. The other structure that you’ll hear a lot
about is the hippocampus. This is really the brain’s librarian. So the hippocampus sort of stores memory. It helps us to compare experiences to things
we’re experiencing now to past experiences. It’s location is right next to the amygdala
and so they work in concert to form memory. And again this is and area where both the
amygdala and the hippocampus can be damaged for a child experiencing abuse and neglect. We also notice that when there is severe neglect
which again I think relates to attachment, it certainly complicates the child’s attachment
– that these areas, these structures in the brain can actually be smaller in children
experiencing attachment problems. So that’s a little bit on the gross anatomy
of the brain. Again that’s a very quick overview on some
of the main structures and hemispheres and how they have to do with attachment and memory
and so forth. So I know that I had gone over that rather
quickly. Any thoughts or questions about that?Again
if you have any thoughts or questions, please feel free to chat those down in the chat box. And again I want to thank our mediators and
participants for putting up a number of really terrific resources. I encourage you all to check those out. Amanda I agree about the Dan Hughes – he’s
terrific and really does a lot of good work. At the end of the presentation you’ll notice
a number of resources and references that we had put together that if you are interested
more there’s a number of heavy hitters in the area of neuroscience and attachment, along
with play therapy that are included in those references and resources and I encourage you
to check those out when we are completed. So the role of therapy then – any child experiencing
attachment difficulties or experiencing vicarious or secondary trauma or any of the types of
trauma that we talked about a little bit earlier really is sort of mitigating these effects
and so Ithink what’s central to any kind of therapy – and we’re gonna talk about play
therapy as a specific form of therapy but – any form of therapy really is about developing
the relationship. THat is what we bring to – that’s the main
tool that forms our professional bond with a child and being present, being consistent
being reliable, being predictable, anyway that we can convey that in our professional
relationship in working with a child and their family really does help. And not only psychologically – We know again
from the neuro research that we create change in the brain. THere are neurobiological changes that take
place when these positive attachments form. So that’s really an important consideration
and thing to kind of keep in mind. So we’re gonna talk now and get into sort
of the meat of the matter here and that’s in regards to play therapy and its benefits
to the military child. We’re gonna talk about a couple of cases,
a couple of examples of its benefits in work with our children. But I’m gonna ask you as our audience. WHat are some of the benefits that you think
that play therapy can offer to our military children? Thanks Christina from posting the article
from the National Institute of Health. Thanks Amanda. Yeah it helps children relax in therapy. I think absolutely and the other thing about
play therapy that I think is quite unique – and I have to tell you, long before I started
using play in my work with children, I was a little skeptical about its use and I was
like, “I don’t know about this play therapy.” I wasn’t quite understanding it. I had a colleague that introduced me to play
therapy. She was taking coursework and had a practicum
to become a registered play therapist and it was my first introduction to play therapy
and I thought, “You know there may be something to this.” And as Amanda points out, one of the greatest
things about play therapy with children is they don’t know they’re in therapy, they just
think they are playing. And essentially they are. But we are using it as a way to understand
children. We’re gonna talk about some of the therapeutic
benefits and then psychological phenomenon that takes places in play therapy that’s very
healing and mutative but you’re right – it really does. It takes the focus off, it takes the pressure
off of talking and for our youngest children, they don’t have perhaps the words or the cognitive
capacity – at least at the developmental level – to form questions or answers to what they’re
experiencing, but they sure do know how to play. So it’s really kind of an axiom of social
work that we kinda go to where the client is. So it’s really a terrific form. We are getting a lot of great chats here. Play can help form a bond b/w the caregiver
and the child. That’s so true. One of the forms of play therapy – that we’re
not gonna talk a whole lot about just b/c of our time limit – but it’s called filial
therapy and that’s when a registered play therapists works with a child and family kind
of teaches the family how to play with one another. Specifically teaches a parent the child-centered
or non directive approach to playing with their child – letting the child lead the play
and just sort of following along. We’re gonna talk about that form of play therapy. But it’s so true. It’s a great bonding experience and not only
in the therapy room but also for a parent and their child. It is non threatening, Robyn, absolutley. It’s natural. Children naturally play. That’s part of their natural growing up and
development. It’s very fitting with their natural developmental
tasks. A couple other comments here: “create successful
experiences tha tboost trust and self esteem.” That’s excellent, Courtney. Absolutely right. I love to build on small successes and when
a child experiences these small successes they can build on one another and create confidence
and self-efficacy. All great things for our growing children. Bari posted a link there to learning about
filial therapy which I encourage you to do from the goodtherapy.org site. Thanks Bari. A couple other things here. “Some parents don’t know how to play with
their children so we can help them and show them simple ways to do so.” Absolutely Courtney. You guys touched on a number of benefits to
play therapy. So let’s go ahead and get into this and talk
a little bit about its application. First of all, I want to talk a little bit
by way of background – although play therapy is getting a little bit more press these days,
say in the last 15-20 years in the psychological journals and so forth – it’s actually been
around for a long, long time. It actually has been around since the earliest
part of our understanding of psychology and psychological work with both adults and children. But let’s first define play therapy in a general
way. This is by Schaefer who has a really great
compilation and I think I include Schaefer at the end in our references and resources
– a really great compilation on play therapy but it’s an interpersonal process wherein
a trained therapist systematically applies the curative powers of play to help clients
resolve psychological difficulties. So we’re gonna talk about some of the various
therapuetic benefits of play therapy a number of which our participants have hit on in the
chat box. It’s really such a terrific form of therapy. I would go as far as saying it’s probably
the best form of therapy, particularly with our youngest children. And play therapy can be used with children
as young as two – I’ve used play therapy with children who were non-verbal – on up to about
the age of ten. It can be applied to children a little bit
older than that and in various forms. We will talk a little about some of the directive
forms that play therapy can take especially for our oldest children who may look at non-directive
forms a little bit differently than our youngest children but it can be applied across children
from the age of 2-10 and to address a variety of problems. One of the greatest proponents of play therapy,
and actually runs a play therapy center at North Texas University is a gentleman by the
name of Gary Landruth. He has written extensively about the use of
play with children and his famous quote is “Toys are a child’s words, and play is their
language.” As Lauren and some of our other participants
have pointed out that play is terrific, especially for non-verbal children. They will play out what is bothering them,
what their fears are. Their experiences will come out in various
ways through their play. So it’s a way for children to express their
feelings, to gain mastery over certain ideas – social ideas, relationship ideas, and conflict. It’s a way of problem solving as well for
our children. Play therapy does come in two main forms. The one form is directive and the other is
non-directive. Or sometimes non-directive forms are called
child-centered play therapy. We’re gonna talk about child-centered play
therapy in particular. It’s a form of therapy that I was trained
in and use quite a bit, especially with our youngest children. So we’re gonna talk about that in just a moment. Again, keep the chat coming. There’s a number of terrific resources that
others are letting people know about. That’s terrific. Keep it coming. Direct forms of play therapy – these are forms
that maybe many of you have used in your practices. This is play that generally facilitates talking. I’m going to talk a little bit about what
I call fishing therapy – not exactly a form of play – although I enjoy fishing quite a
bit. I had worked for a period of time at a residential
treatment facility for children and adolescents for about 8 years. And of course one of the forms of therapy
that we had at the residential treatment facility was individual and family work. We did a lot of individual therapy, family
therapy, we did group therapy but one of the most effective forms that therapy took – I
had worked in a male and a female residents – but with my middle school aged male residents
– one of the greatest things and our main form of therapy took various forms of behavioral
therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy and that was part and parcel in what we did there
in residential treatment, but one of the greatest things was when children could earn a fishing
trip. We had a pond on grounds and one of the things
that Ifound was that when the focus was taken off of talking and Iwould take the kids fishing
and we’d be standing there sort of looking out at the water and throwing our lure out
into the pond and not looking at one another – they were some of the greatest therapy sessions
that I’ve ever had – these fishing therapy sessions. I remember one boy in particular who was ten,
and the regular forms of talk therapy you kinda had to drag it out of him. He wasn’t all that talkative but he had earned
a therapy session out at the pond and we started fishing – and I think we did catch one or
two fish – but when we were standing in parallel and not looking at one another I learned so
much about him and his family. His loss of his brothers – he had other brothers
who were removed from the home. He had been removed from the home because
of severe neglect and abuse and really really opened up. And I really attribute it to the fact that
number one, we were doing something that had taken the focus and the pressure off of the
fact that we talking. We weren’t looking at one another. We were in parallel looking out at the body
of water together. And it really, really opened him up. We had a really, really terrific talk. And also it was a bonding experience. It was something that, Ithink, further enhanced
the therapuetic alliance and it was kind of a launching point for other more traditional
forms of therapy that he had undergone afterwards. Another form of directed therapy or directed
play therapy I would like to talk about is the use of puppets and you can use this is
non-directive (child-centered)play therapy but also puppets can be used in a more directive
form. One of my greatest experiences with the use
of puppets was a young boy in foster care and I was actually meeting with he and his
foster mom for an initial session and then I had met with him by himself and he was largely
silent during the first part of the session and was kind of scanning the room and if you
can imagine my play room at the time. I had a playhouse and a number of different
figurines and I had this stand – a puppet stand that had a number of different human
figures on it. It had a number of animal figures on it of
animal puppets and he did not say anything. He was just kind of scanning the room but
then his eye caught the stand of puppets and he grabbed a puppet for me and he sort of
said “hum hum” and indicated to me that he wanted me to take that puppet. Then he took one himself then he kind of looked
at me like, “Ok. We can start now.” And I started to ask him questions. You know so “Tell me a little bit about yourself,
” and he made the puppet talk and introduced himself through the puppet. So it really became sort of a vessel for or
kind of a mode or medium by which he could comfortably introduce himself for the first
time to me. So it was really kind of a wonderful experience
and it took the focus off and the pressure off of just talking. Some other folks have used therapuetic games. There’s a number of therapuetic games that
are out there. Many of you probably have used in your own
offices. One of my favorites is called the Ungame. That’s probably a game that many of you are
familiar with. There are no winners or losers in the game. It’s really kind of a game that facilitates
open discussion, talking, non-intrusive questioning. You have to land on certain spaces to be able
to ask a question and it’s reciprocal. In other words, the child can also ask the
therapist questions as well. If you’re not familiar with The Ungame I highly
recommend that you check it out this is a game that I think, probably children ages
6-12 and even some of our older children – middle school aged children – because it takes the
focus off of talking. It is a game. Kids really seem to enjoy it and it really
facilitates a good bit of talking. I also use cards. I play cards a lot with my teenagers. Anything to kind of take the pressure off
of talking. Of course we all have our clients who are
very verbal and you really have to do very little to facilitate talking but for kids
who are non-verbal these are really great tools. I’m looking at the time and I’m going to go
ahead and move on a little bit. Ijust want to talk briefly about some of the
theoretical history of play therapy. Again it’s been used by some of therapy’s
most prominent figures – here is Papa Freud had even talked about – in his early writing
around the turn of the century he recognized the importance of play in the early development
of a child – the developmental tasks that are facilitated through play and its use in
therapy. Also, again, some of the giants in our field,
Erikson, Piaget, Anna Freud – his most loyal disciple so to speak, his daughter. Anna Freud and Burlingham used play in their
work with orphans and small children in the Hampstead War Nurseries, surrounding WWII. So play was used quite a bit in their early
work and she had written quite a bit on play therapy and its use. One of the greats Margaret Mahler recognized
play in her stages of development as a means of solving problems and to help them understand
the world around them in their terms. Winnicott one of my favorite child psychiatrists
of all time, really was a huge proponent of play therapy and its use with kids. He believes that play in of itself is a therapy
and a child’s play has everything in it. So the child, the child’s world, the things
they are worried about, the things that they are working on, the things that they fear
can be found if we carefully use play. It can be discovered in applying play therapy. Winnicott felt so strongly about the relationship
of play even to adult work. He really felt that therapy with adults was
a form of play in that it’s a safe place that adults can play around with ideas, play around
with thoughts, and then apply them in their real life. I’m seeing in the chat some of the play resources
and games. Feelings Jenga – I love that one Amanda. There’s Angry Animals board game. There’s Angry Monsters board game as well. Feelings Bingo – I love it. That’s terrific. A number of ways that we can use directive
forms of play to facilitate our work. Winnicott also recognized that play in and
of itself is universal and is something that all children do to a varying extent. It facilitates growth and therefore health. It helps with group relationships, peer relationships,
socially, behaviorally, and otherwise. In can be a form of communication. It’s a way of a child communicating to us. He felt that psychoanalysis and therapy in
and of itself is a highly specialized form of play. It also helps in terms of a person’s object
relations and a way of expressing wishes and fantasies. It’s a way for children to gain some mastery
and control over their environment. We see that quite a bit in kids ruminating
– or there’s something that’s really kind of present in their life that they’re really
struggling with, we can see this being worked through in their play. Winnicott was such a strong proponent of play
therapy that he felt that there are children that maybe don’t use their imagination or
don’t use a lot of imaginative play and he felt that was something we needed to do as
therapists is encourage and facilitate a child to play as much as possible because it was
so important to their health – their mental health and well-being. I’m going to talk about a couple of different
cases with play therapy with military children. And this very specific form of play therapy
called child-centered play therapy. Any questions or thoughts about the directed
forms? I see in the chat there’s a number of examples
of directed forms and games. Keep them coming. Amanda talks about how she has a doll house
with people in her office. We’re gonna talk about some of the play therapy
equipment, so to speak and that’s one of the most important ones that should be part of
a play therapist’s repertoire. So that’s terrific Amanda. So let’s talk about child centered play therapy. This is a very specific form of play therapy. I’m going to talk a little bit about the case
of “Lava Boy.” I had this client and he started in my practice
around the age of two. He had a number of developmental delays including
he was not altogether verbal at the age of two, very, very limited vocabulary and language
development at that point. But he was very angry. Mom and Dad were not living together. Father had been highly verbally abusive. Father had been in the military, however was
dishonorably discharged and had a number of things going on – suspected substance abuse,
and there were just a number of things going on. In fact the mom was at the point where she
was thinking of pursuing some kind of no contact with Dad because she was very concerned about
his substance abuse. So one of the things that was happening was
my client at the time was trying to potty train. He was not potty trained, he was still wearing
a diaper at this point and would become very, very upset about any time that he had to defecate
he would throw a huge tantrum. Anytime that the potty was suggested to him,
he would throw a huge tantrum. He would get himself so upset that he would
almost throw up. He would gag. This had gone on for some time. You can imagine how disruptive this was. This was happening several times each day. Anytime there was a need to move his bowels
he just became so upset. We couldn’t figure out what was going on. There was some suspicion that something might
be going on in his father’s home but he was non-verbal. He wasn’t telling anybody about this but he
would just have these huge angry outbursts. What I would notice in therapy there was a
lot of focus on explosions – things kinda blowing up. And Mom noticed in the home on occasion he
would get on Mom’s computer and he was completely fascinated with volcanoes and lava. He would get on YouTube and spend long amounts
of time with Mom there. He was so focused on volcanoes. Just loved to watch them explode, loved to
watch them kind of gush over and so much so that Mom brought that to session. She said, “I don’t know what it is but he’s
like fixated and sort of fascinated with lava.” And so we talked a little bit more about it
and I did notice – although I didn’t have a volcano in my office or anything that depicted
a volcano – I noticed a lot of play like that – things were blowing up, figures would get
stuck in rivers of lava, and animals would get stuck in rivers of lava. And there was this kind of lava theme. And what we know in child-centered work is
whenever a child repetitively – when there’s some kind of theme that repeats itself over
and over in therapy – that’s certainly something that is significant. We know that that represents to them some
type of problem, some type of psychological conflict, there’s something happening there
that we should kind of pay attention to. And that when we see that sort of repetition
work its way through – we know that they are kind of working through that psychological
problem. And so anyhow what was really fascinating
was – we wondered if there was some relationship of lava to his toileting. This play continued to happen and continued
to happen this fascination with lava until finally – and this didn’t actually happen
in my office – the lava boy had shared with his grandma – who was a very important very
safe figure in his life – didn’t share this with Mom but shared with his grandmother that
when he would go to his father’s house and had to move his bowels that Dad became very
upset with him. Dad and Dad’s partner would both become very
upset with him sort of made him feel bad about that. And one time Dad had taken his diaper that
he had moved his bowels in and had wiped it on the child’s face – like stuffed his face
in the diaper – so the boy told his grandmother this. And of course they related this to me, we
called Children and Youth to let them know about this so they could investigate this
a little bit more. And once he talked about this it sort of took
the power out and he was holding on to this literally. And it made sense too that this lava really
represented his moving of the bowels – it would explode, it would flow, and really became
a centerpiece of his play and it really was about him sort of negotiating this very important
developmental milestone of moving his bowels, controlling his bowels as a 2 to 2 1/2 year
old does. And once he was finally able to express that
– and I believe that the play not only the play but also his family work, had allowed
him to do this, it didn’t have the power over him that it once did. And he was able to verbalize that which was
really exciting. And as it was Children and Youth did investigate
he was then to have supervised visits with Dad just over time Dad just sort of dropped
out of the picture – had gone to jail related to drug charges, and my client wasn’t having
any contact with Dad after some time. But I bring that case up because taken literally
or by itself may not mean a whole lot but when we use play therapy we can understand
what this play can represent. So let’s just talk briefly about the term
“client-centered therapy.” Carl Rogers first coined this term in his
work with adults is a form of therapy that really honors the person’s ability to solve
their own problems. Carl Rogers collaborated with a woman by the
name of Virginia Axline, one of his main collaborators in talking about child work and she applied
this idea of client centered therapy to children in play therapy. And it became known as child centered play
therapy. There is a link here that I encourage you
after today’s session to take a look at that actually depicts Gary Landruth who I had referred
to on an earlier slide who’s really one of the modern gurus of child centered work. It depicts his using of child centered play
therapy with a female client and it shows kind of the non directive approach and how
to kind of facilitate that in your work. I’m going to move on because we are getting
a little bit short on time. Again as Landruth said children communicate
through play they communicate so much through their play. Toys are children’s words, and play is their
language. Virginia Axline in her early work talked about
a play experience is therapeutic because it provides a secure relationship – so there’s
the attachment piece – between the child and the adult so that the child has the freedom
and room to state himself – or herself – in his or her own terms exactly as he or she
is at the moment in his way and in his own time. These are the axioms of child centered play
therapy – again these are the guidelines that Virginia Axline had enumerated regarding child
centered work – these are the principles that guide child-centered work. Number one, the therapist must develop a warm
friendly relationship with the child in which good rapport is established as soon as possible. Again creating that safety, predictability,
all the things that we can associate with a strong attachment relationship. Two, the therapist accepts the child exactly
as he or she is. And that can be difficult at times I worked
with one young person, a young girl, a lot of aggressive play a lot of angry stuff and
but you know we kind of follow and go with that. Three, the therapist establishes a feeling
of permissiveness in the relationship so that the child feels free to express his or her
feelings completely. The one way I like to open up play therapy
sessions and this was in my training in child centered work I would like to open up by telling
a child, first of all, that they’ve entered the play therapy room, that this place is
a special place, and that in this place they can do almost anything that they want and
if there’s something that they can’t do, I will let you know. But other than that you can do anything you
want. Once I kind of give them sort of the opening
to do anything they want I set a limit so that if there’s anything they can’t do such
as breaking toys – I don’t say this to them, but these are kind of the non negotiables
they’re not allowed to break toys, they’re not allowed to do anything that would hurt
themself and they’re not allowed to hurt me. I don’t tell them that but anyhow… So other than those three things, then I open
it back up by letting them know other than that you can do anything you want. And then that’s it. That’ s how I like to open up a session. And again it gives children this idea of permissiveness,
it gives them free reign to do whatever it is that they need and the equipment – the
play therapy equipment which we’re going to talk about in just a moment – is there for
their use. Four, the therapist is alert to recognize
the feelings the child is expressing and reflects those feelings back to him in such a manner
that he gains insight. So a lot of what we do in child-centered work
is simply reflecting on what’s happening. What they are playing with, the emotions that
they seem to display and that is really a large part of the role of the therapist. And again I highly recommend – we’re not going
to have time to do it during this webinar – but I highly recommend that you go to the
link that Bari posted on Gary Landreth’s work and just to kind of see what the technique
looks like in an actual therapy session. One of the other axioms is that the therapist
maintains a deep respect for the child’s ability to solve his own problems – that’s a humanistic
sort of straight out of Carl Rogers work in terms of client centered work. We do not attempt to direct the child’s actions
or conversations in any manner. This can be very difficult. The child really leads the way, we follow. This is something that even as an experienced
therapist who uses play quite a bit in my work this is difficult for me. I have to remind myself to kind of follow,
to not be directive, to not help when a child’s experiencing difficulty to kind of reflect
back on what’s happening. This can be so, so difficult. I see in our chat box a number of you may
have used this type of work and kind of realized its power. It’s really quite a great way of working with
kids. We don’t try to hurry the therapy along. Again this could be a challenge. When we’re put under the pressures of insurance
and things like that this can be really difficult. But it really allows the work to unfold on
the child’s time. We establish only those limitations that are
necessary to anchor the therapy. I talked about the way that I like to do that
at the very beginning of the session. Just a couple of things in terms of the play
therapy equipment. These are sort of the basics of the equipment. I like to include what has been called ‘real
life toys.’ These are family dolls, puppets, doll houses,
play houses, cars, trucks, cash registers really great to have, money. I have a small kitchen set and see kids use
that quite a bit. There are actually play therapy bags that
are available that have some of the basic equipment in them, that are kind of mobile
if you kind of in the type of work that you are going in the home or that you’re moving
from site to site. There are kind of play therapy bags that contain
some very basic play therapy equipment that can be really useful. There are a number of different places that
you can purchase those kinds of things. Also – now this is a little bit controversial,
but there are some play equipment that includes some aggressive play so bop bags, toy soldiers,
particularly for our military children, animal figurines, guns, knives, swords. There’s some debate on the use of aggressive
toys. I do like to have a few aggressive toys – particularly
the military figurines – Army/Navy figures and the other branches Air Force , I like
to have small airplanes and things like that available to kids. I think that’s really important especially
for our military kids. And also other types of equipment that would
facilitate creative and emotional expression so art supplies, crayons, having paper available
for kids that like to draw, these are great. I’m looking at the time, we are getting short
on time, just again I want to point out a few things. The therapeutic benefits of play therapy,
some of the things that we’ve already talked about the ability to imitate the adults in
their life and the situations that are going on in their life from their standpoint expressing
needs, immediate and pressing, expressing unacceptable impulses and feelings, this is
really really important. We see this in kids’ aggressive play within
the confines of play therapy is really important. I don’t worry too much about it when I see
the aggressive play because I know and recognize that kids need to do this and it may not be
something they are able to do in their real lives. So it’s very important for them to be able
to do that to a certain extent and they do that through the play. Role reversal so they’re able to see things
from an adult perspective by playing out various roles. They’re able to work out problems and conflict
as well. We see there’s a growing, growing body of
evidence and one of the resources included at the end here is a meta analysis on the
use of play but we see a growing body of evidence with the use of play in kids experiencing
the death of a loved one. Divorce and separation certainly trauma, neglect
and abuse, play is very mutative. The last thing I will do here because I recognize
we are short on time – I want talk about the case of Rocket Girl and Interplanetary Mail
Delivery.”This was actually the very first client I had when we started the military
family center at Temple and her father was deployed by the time I began to meet with
this girl. And one of the things that came about in her
play was she used to like to – and I wasn’t all that comfortable with it, but I kind of
let it go because you know child centered stuff so I let it happen – she would get in
my chair – my office chair was kind of right next to the play therapy area in my office. And she would encourage me to spin her around
because she was going on a rocket and she was going to the various planets and she was
going to deliver mail and we literally had these letters – these flat letters – alphabet
letters – that she would deliver to various places. And then intermittently – I had a globe in
my office – she would point to where her dad was deployed. And she would do this over and over – this
became a routine in her play, this repetitive play so I wanted to pay attention to it. And what it actually was kind of depicting
for her was her way of kind of connecting with her dad, sending messages to her dad,
at the various places that he may be. She knew he was in Kuwait but she was flying
off in her rocket to kind of visit Dad and to deliver various messages to him and it
was really kind of a beautiful neat way for her to express this through the play. Last thing – I talked about the play therapy
equipment – if possible, and I actually don’t have this in my current office, but in one
of my old offices, I had the benefit of having two play houses which was really great, especially
for blended families if Mom or Dad or the caregivers are separated, it’s a really great
way to facilitate – and they often represented the different households. So I realize I’m short on time so Bari I’m
going to turn it over to you and see if there’s any questions that folks have. Bari: Okay. Thank you so much James. I really appreciate it. This was wonderful. James – and to everybody here – if you want
to stay to ask a question after I finish everything up you can do that just for a couple of minutes,
but I’m gonna go ahead and proceed. Here are some resources that James has provided
for us, they are are wonderful resources so feel free to check any and all of those out. And if you could just take a minute of your
time to type in one significant thing that you learned today we would really appreciate
that and I’m going to let you type those in and as you’re typing them I’m going to give
you guys some details on other things. So if you could just type those in it would
be great for James to see those and for us to see them as well. Thank you all so much. Let’s talk about social media for a second,
one of my very favorite topics! If you are on Facebook or Twitter, please
join us where you can find us talking about a wide variety of topics and sharing valuable
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about today’s webinar, and follow up on the discussions from the chat pod or questions
from the chat pod, please join us right now on these social media outlets. We would love to talk to you. We would also like to invite our MFLN Service
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post-test. The link is on this slide and in the chat
pod. We will be providing 1.5 NASW and GAMFT CEUs
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you’ll take the evaluation and the post-test and then your certificate of completion will
also be automatically emailed to you. You can now find the link to the evaluation
and post test on the Learn Event for today’s webinar. A link to the Learn Even will now be placed
in the chat pod again. If you’re in a field other social work, early
intervention, or marriage and family therapy in a state on than Georgia, it is important
to note that sometimes other state and professionals licensure boards recognize the CEUs that we
supply. So if you’re wondering if these CEUs apply
to your licensure field, it may be worth checking with your state or professional licensure
board. More detailed information regarding CE credits
for this webinar and others can be found on the website that our team will now supply
in the chat pod. If you have any problems accessing the evaluation
and post test please contact us at our email address which again is [email protected]
Family Development’s next VLE session will be on Sept. 22 at 11:00 a.m. EST. The title is “Exploring the Impact of Moral
Injury on Military Families” A link to the Learn Even can be found in the chat pod and
on this slide. If you were unable to join us on the first
sessions of our VLE please check out the recordings and other information at the link that is
currently being provided. And if you enjoyed our webinar then be sure
to check out MFLN’s other areas content programming. You’ll notice that many of them also provide
free CEUs for their webinar participants. Thank you all again so much for joining us
today. We hope to see you at our future webinars. And now at this time I’m going to turn it
over to Coral. Coral: Thanks Bari, so much. And thank you everyone who has joined us today. It sounds just from the feedback that we were
receiving from the chat pod that all of y’all found it quite useful as well. I’m not sure how James is doing on time, however,
James, if you would like and are available to stay on for a few more minutes, I think
we have some folks who still have some content related questions. And we’d like to take a few moments for that. James: Yeah I have a few minutes. I can stick on the line for a little bit. Happy to do that. Coral: Great. Just one thing real quick, if anybody needs
to head out, please feel free to do so. If you would like or would need to ask any
questions of the Family Development team we posted their email address which is [email protected]
in that important info pod to the lower right of the screen. James I’m gonna turn things back over to you. Thank you. James: I had seen some great feedback. Looks like folks found the background information
o the brain helpful and there was one comment there I didn’t’ get to remark on – we didn’t
get to talk about it in an extensive way, but the use of two playhouses again if you
use play therapy or you’re interested in using play therapy you might consider that because,
again, for kids who are separated from caregivers for various reasons either because of deployment
or because of a blended family, they can be so wonderful. They end up representing their two worlds
with the separate playhouses. I find it’s really powerful. Bari: To those of you who are having issues
with the post-test we are working on that right now if you can send us an email so that
we can email you back with what’s going on. We are so sorry about that but we will handle
that if you would just go ahead and email us and then that way we will have your email
address and we will take care of the issue. Thank you so much. Is there anybody else that would like to ask
James any other questions in the meantime? Coral: So if y’all would like to email the
MFLN Family [email protected] email address that is the one that is listed in the important
info pod at this time. Bari: And again we apologize with the difficulties
for the test, we are going to work out the problem and get everybody set up. If you’ll give us just a minute. Coral: So logging in as a guest to APAN connect
is the appropriate way to access these webinars. It would just be a system issue that Bari
and her team are working on rectifying at the moment. So thanks everybody for your patience. As Bari said, please do email their team. And they’ll get everything straightened out
here shortly. Thanks so much. James: Hi Bari, it’s James I’m gonna go ahead
and sign off. Looked like there were no other questions
so I just wanted to thank you and your team for the invitation and the opportunity to
speak today and wish you all a wonderful afternoon and good luck in your respective places of
employment and your work with service members. Thank you for inviting me. Coral: James thank you so much for joining
us. This was such an incredible webinar. We just so appreciate you sharing your expertise
with us today. Bari: Yes James I second that. Thank you so very very much for joining us
today. It’s been a delight working with you and we
really appreciate the wonderful presentation today. So thank you. James: You’re welcome. Take care. Coral: Tracy, in response to your question. We will definitely be posting the appropriate
link to the Learn Event page which is listed in the important info pod to the lower right. So just check there in 15-20 minutes and everything
should be straightened up at that time. Bari: Thanks again everyone for your patience
while we work out this issue. It will be resolved and we will definitely
provide the link for you as Coral said. Coral: So we are going to close out this webinar
in just a moment or two. I do invite you to copy down the MFLN Family
Development Gmail address in the lower right, as well as, the Learn page URL for this webinar. It’s the same page that you used to log in
this morning so you should already have that. Please just refer back to the Learn Event
page a little bit later this afternoon and let the Family Development team (Bari and
her team) know if you have any things that you need assistance with. We do thank you again for joining us and hope
to see you again next Thursday for the conclusion of this virtual learning event. Thank you so much for your participation today
and we hope you have a wonderful afternoon. If you’re still hanging out with us, Brigitte
Scott, who coordinates our evaluations has let us know that the post-test should now
be operable. Thanks so much Brigitte and Bari for your
work on that. If you do experience any further difficulty
please just email the MFLN Family Development team at their [email protected]
address. Thanks so much. Sarah we’ll be posting that correct link to
the learn.extension.org Learn Event page. I’ll just repost that in the chat pod for
you just so that you have a static place to refer to once we head out of here today. And yes, if you have already taken the evaluation
and you still need to take the post test please head over to that link that Brigitte has just

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